Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia comprises 13,466 islands and 33 provinces. With over 238 million people, it is the world's fourth most populous country, and has the world's largest population of Muslims. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world's eighteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and fifteenth largest by purchasing power parity.
The Indonesian archipelago has become an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought Islam, and European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.
Across its many islands, Indonesia consists of distinct ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The Javanese are the largest-and the politically dominant -ethnic group. Indonesia has developed a shared identity defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism including rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country is richly endowed with natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread in contemporary Indonesia.
Indonesia is home to no less than 167 active volcanoes, far more than any other country. Some of the more accessible for visitors are in the Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park and the Ijen Crater in East Java, Mount Rinjani in Lombok and perhaps easiest of all, Mount Batur in Bali.
Hardly surprisingly in the world's largest archipelago, beaches are significant attractions.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Borobudur in Central Java is the world's largest Buddhist monument, dating from the 8th century and nearby Prambanan, close to Borobudur, is a remarkable Hindu monument dating from just a few years later.
Indonesia has some of the largest remaining tracts of tropical forest anywhere in the world, and these support any incredibly diverse wildlife from Orang Utangs and other primates to critically endangered Javan Rhinoceros and Tigers, and an extraordinarily wide range of bird species. Areas recognised as world heritage sites are Ujung Kulon National Park in West Java and huge parts of Sumatra including Gunung Leuser National Park and Kerinci Seblat National Park.
Further east Komodo Island is the home of the remarkable Komodo Dragon and the very remote Lorentz National Park in Papua has a permanent glacier.